Japan is a democratic country with free market economy. The constitution of the country that came into effect in 1947 reflects the following three basic principles and concepts: the sovereignty of the country, human rights, and freedom.

There is universal suffrage for adults over 20 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elective offices. Japan"s legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives and House of Councillors. The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of state. The position is not appointed directly as it is in US and France, being more like the process in Great Britain and Canada, whose constitutional monarchies give very little power to the monarch. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members and the PM builds their team to work for the country.

The Government is divided into three sovereign branches that have a degree of control over one another: legislative, executive, and judicial. In this way, power domination of a branch is limited such that human rights and civil liberties are protected. As a ceremonial figurehead, the Emperor, who does not take part in the day-to-day functions of government, is defined by the constitution as “the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people.” Local administrative bodies are chosen by local elections.





377,819 km2



Official language




GDP per capita



Yen (JPY)

Average temperature (summer), deg. C.

27.1 (Tokyo)

Average temperature (winter), deg. C.

5.8 (Tokyo)

Mountainous area




January 1-3

New Year (shogatsu)

1st day of 2nd week, January

Coming of Age of 20 (seijin no hi)

February 11

National Foundation Day (kenkoku kinenbi)

March 21

Beginning of spring (setsubun)

April 29

Showa Day (Showa no hi) The birthday of former Emperor Showa.)

May 3

Constitution Day (kenpo kinenbi)

May 5

Children"s Day (kodomo no hi)

1st day of 3rd week, July

Ocean Day (umi no hi)

September 15

Respect for the Aged Day (keiro no hi)

September 23

Autum Equinox Day (shubun no hi)

1st day of 2nd week, October

Health and Sports Day (taiiku no hi)

November 3

Culture Day (bunka no hi)

November 3

Labour Thanksgiving Day (kinro kansha no hi)

December 23

Emperor"s Birthday (tenno no tanjobi)